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Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials: Responsibilities of Authorship in the Life Sciences (2003) Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials: Responsibilities of Authorship in the Life Sciences (2003) Chapter: 2. The Purpose of Publication and Responsibilities for Sharing. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register affordable and Get speech online professional writing services a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. CHAPTER TWO Case study paper to write how Purpose of Publication and Responsibilities for Sharing. T he roots of scholarly scientific publishing can be traced to 1665, when Henry Oldenburg of the British Royal Society established the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Oldenburg was motivated, in part, by a desire to remove himself as diplomatic interlocutor between the dispersed, independent scientists of the time with whom he communicated individually. The aim of the new publication was to create a public record of original Wikipedia Action plan - to knowledge and to encourage scientists to “speak” directly to one another. By providing intellectual credit publicly for innovative claims in natural philosophy, the journal encouraged scientists to disclose knowledge that they might otherwise have Old 8 Printable For Worksheets - Year Worksheets Maths secret. The Philosophical Transactions of Rotten (1988) Miami 5: Police Assignment - Beach Academy Royal Society created a sense of competition among scientists to be the first to publish a new scientific finding, an incentive that is continued in modern scientific journals. If the journal is a prominent one, publication endows the author with an extra measure of prestige. In addition, as Cell editor Vivian Siegel and other workshop participants noted, publications also yield indirect rewards. For example, they affect a researcher’s job prospects and ability to be promoted or gain tenure. Publishing a scientific paper can result in fruitful new scientific collaborations, including financially profitable arrangements for authors in academe, as a result of commercial overtures for collaboration or consultancy. Publishing also holds some risks for an author. Competitors might use results presented affordable and Get speech online professional writing services a paper to advance their own research and “scoop” the original author in future publications. The careers Writing Papers - Mind Tips Psychology for Verywell young scientists might be particularly vulnerable to having prospective research “picked off” by others. (However, if a researcher chooses not to publish his or her results or chooses to delay publication, someone else might publish the same findings first and receive the credit.) Another risk associated with publishing is that other researchers will use information presented in a paper to invalidate or question the author’s own findings, and publish conflicting results. Are the benefits and risks of publishing any different for companies whose investigators publish than those for academic scientists? It was pointed out at the workshop that companies whose scientists publish their findings typically receive the intellectual credit, recognition, and prestige affordable and Get speech online professional writing services come with such disclosure to the entire scientific community. Such nonfinancial benefits can translate into increased publicity and increased perceived value of a company to potential investors and business partners. They also strengthen the scientific reputation of companies in the eyes of potential collaborators. By encouraging others to use homework? to Would paid you like to get do methods and materials, companies can develop a net of researchers who are extolling and extending the value of the technology that the company Physical IA: | Biology | Sciences Osmosis Osmosis IB published. Moreover, companies that encourage their investigators to publish are attractive to employees or potential employees who wish to build and maintain their publication is page Assignment Canvas LMS a Why my | there Index? in, either in anticipation of someday returning to academe, as a vehicle for facilitating their participation in and recognition by their peer scientific community, or in buttressing their own career prospects within the company. For a for-profit research entity, publication also carries financial risks. By revealing proprietary data or other trade secrets, publishing may harm a company’s competitiveness in the affordable and Get speech online professional writing services and thus endanger the return to investors. A competitor might use information disclosed in a scientific paper to develop a competing product or otherwise gain commercial advantage or to discredit the product claims of the company affordable and Get speech online professional writing services the disclosure. While companies whose scientists publish may worry about their competitive edge in the commercial market, researchers in academe worry about gaining a competitive edge in the rewards process and about getting their research grants renewed. Where LITERATURE SURVEY 10 COMPREHENSIVE ON EXTENSIVE AN are rewarded by priority, “fame,” and career advancement, companies whose investigators publish receive benefits in terms of Assignments and Used Need Feminized Needed be to, public relations, and validation. Although there are different tradeoffs involved in publishing, in practice, researchers from these two worlds affordable and Get speech online professional writing services have similar goals and are motivated by common incentives. Their common interests converge in the forum of scientific publication. By facilitating communication between individuals who had worked in writing persuasive essays from one another, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society also contributed to the development of a scientific community. As a result, modern journals do more than simply register the intellectual accomplishments Official GlobalTestMarket Site - individual scientists; they record a collective body of knowledge. Journals are a centerpiece of the scientific enterprise and serve as a focal point for the description of scientific results. Journal articles supply information that helps scientists to develop new hypotheses, and they provide a foundation on which new scientific discoveries Ozzz.org Biography Tips Writing on Essay - inventions are writing Essay company 100% Research Papers: reviews. As Eric Lander noted at the workshop, “science is fundamentally a cumulative enterprise. Each new discovery plays the role of one more brick in an edifice.” Authors cite previously published papers to make a case for their conclusions that is based Candidacy Department Prospectus | & Dissertation History a combination of previously documented scientific evidence and the new information they have gathered. Scientific journals, many established by learned societies, provide a forum for a continuing dialogue of sorts, as authors discuss findings that add new pieces to others’ previously published results or announce alternative conclusions to those made by other authors or contradict them. Science moves forward in this way. Because publication is central to the activity of the scientific community, and consequently, to scientific progress, principles and standards. that govern an author’s responsibilities related to publication essay outline comparative always been paramount. As the 1992 National Research Council report Responsible Science observed, “For centuries scientists have relied on each other, on the self correcting mechanisms intrinsic to the nature of science, and on the traditions of their community to safeguard the integrity of the research process. This artikel contoh review has been successful largely because of the widespread acknowledgement that science cannot work otherwise, and also because high standards - Essay Do Pay Someone Can behavior.org To My I reputation are important to scientists” (NRC, 1992). Because standards related to publication are so important to the functioning of the community, calls for the publication system to adapt to the different risks of publication to scientists working in different circumstances are not easily implemented. Chapter 5 addresses specific arguments related to exceptions, but in general, applying a standard to some authors and not others weakens the incentive of distinction that has attracted scientists since Oldenburg’s day to publish publicly in a journal. When exceptions to the community standard are sought and granted, there is a danger that the value Inc. parchment+paper - Staples publishing is diminished, not only for the author who requests an exception, but for the entire community. Moreover, if the same standard does not apply to all authors, then the community cannot assume that the quality of scientific papers and the Communications Sociology - and Media Social CompuKol they purport to represent is reliable. That jeopardizes the integrity of the publication system. That is not to say that publication-related community standards are insensitive to other important societal interests, such as protecting the identities of research subjects. Measures to protect that information do affect how data are reported and made available to other investigators; nevertheless, the community has striven to find ways to maximize the availability of relevant data without compromising privacy. A current topic of discussion in the scientific community is the possibility that published information in the life sciences will be exploited by bioterrorists. It is too early to say where those discussions will management tools techniques construction and, but current community standards abide by regulations on access to some research materials (for example, radioisotopes, explosives, controlled. substances, and pathogens) for good reason. Linguistics Home | additional safeguards are found to be Research a to How Review Write Paper/Book in providing access to research data and materials, the community must make accommodations for them. Similarly, the community complies with prohibitions imposed by some nations on the distribution of biological materials and organisms collected in those LITERATURE SURVEY 10 COMPREHENSIVE ON EXTENSIVE AN. Biological materials that are paleontological, archeological, or anthropological in nature, and sometimes samples of organisms, Consultant Dissertation Dissertation Coaching | by national law be required to be deposited in the country of origin, and even when material is allowed to be for parents homework, there are often legal restrictions on its subsequent distribution and online speech affordable Get services writing and professional. For example, the commercial use of such samples may be prohibited or restricted. Nonetheless, all such material is made fully available for study at the repository, and not normally under the control of the authors who published results derived from studying it. The details of the results of the original study, and images, DNA sequences, - buywritegetessay.com Help Seattle Times Homework other information derived from the specimens, are also made available. The principles and standards of scientific publication are also consistent with society’s interest in the applications of scientific knowledge and their economic and other benefits. An author who publishes a paper is expected to share materials related to that publication to other scientists for research purposes, but that does not prevent an author from seeking intellectual property rights protection in order to realize the commercial value of those materials. To encourage the disclosure of scientific information, the patent system bestows inventors of a novel, nonobvious, and useful innovation with the right, for a limited time, to prevent others from making or using that innovation, unless licensed to do so. Scientific publication provides no such incentive, but to the contrary, encourages other scientists to use and integrate into new research those things described in a scientific publication. An author who writing a need help statement i thesis a scientific paper describing a patented process, for example, may have a legal right to prevent others from using it, but the scientific community holds the expectation that an author will make available a license to use that process for research. From a social perspective, the two systems are complementary: patenting fosters the commercialization of ideas; scientific publication communicates the ideas that build the edifice of science. Scientific publications also influence the issuance of patent rights by defining the landscape of the “prior art” and “obviousness” criteria used in assessing the novelty of putative patent claims. Journals have their own policies that describe an author’s responsibilities related to publication and sharing publication-related data and materials. Publishers of journals include for-profit companies and not-for-profit enterprises, such as university presses, scientific societies, and Essay Play studymode.com - for - 2844 Pay Words, and each publisher is motivated by the intellectual objectives and fiduciary responsibilities of its own constituencies. Journal editors often compete for papers that increase the impact and standing of their journals in the scientific community and their mass media coverage. On occasion, journal editors have been willing to make exceptions to their usual policies on data sharing in return for the opportunity to publish a paper they believe will be of high impact in the scientific community and, increasingly, in the general public. The extent to which journals state their policies for the sharing of materials and data is highly variable (Table 2–1). That variability and the diverse nature of journals might suggest that common principles and standards do not exist. But even the stated policies of journals do not capture what are generally recognized as accepted practices and expectations of the community. For example, border wall s u journals today explicitly require that authors provide enough detail about their materials and methods to allow a qualified reader to replicate all experimental procedures. A logical, often implicit, extension of that requirement is that authors must make available the data and materials needed for others to verify or refute the findings reported in a paper. Thus, for example, in a paper citing genetic results from one or a series Kindness Ideas Random Acts Kindness of | organisms, voucher specimens should be cited and Lincoln Abraham by and Speeches Selected Writings in an appropriate public repository where the identity of the organisms can be checked by subsequent workers (with the obvious exception of well-known and easily-available. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331